When cell apoptosis or necrosis occurs, DNA is released into the cell environment referred to as cell free DNA (cfDNA). Cell free DNA can be released from healthy, cancerous, or fetal tissue and transplanted organs. This cfDNA can be extracted from whole blood samples (liquid biopsies), and recent scientific developments have made it more possible and effective to use these extractions in an array of crucial methods to detect and track tumors through circulating tumor DNA ctDNA ). Although there are reservations regarding the inconsistent test sensitivities and high costs, the capabilities these liquid biopsies offer sharply contrast with the high risk and invasiveness of tissue biopsies. Cell free DNA can be extracted using automated or manual methods.
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